Services Described


Additional Services

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GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS
Geomorphic analysis is an important component of any engineering project dealing with dynamic systems. Virtually every water resources development project requires a detailed geomorphic analysis that must be dove-tailed into engineering design, interdisciplinary constraints, public constraints and environmental and legal issues. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has worked on geomorphic problems pertaining to hydropower development, hydropower relicensing, mining and agriculture. As a part of its geomorphic analysis, SA considers the short-, intermediate- and long-term responses of river systems which may be subjected to changing climatic conditions, changing hydrologic regimes, and/or changing conditions imposed by water resources development occurring within the system. The geomorphic analysis is intimately linked to the more detailed engineering analysis and design. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES' expertise builds upon its geomorphic analysis by supplementing its engineering analysis and design through the development and use of mathematical models, the development and use of expert systems, and the use of physical models, as required, to determine and finalize the best design among alternatives.

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EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION
Rivers, estuaries, reservoirs, and other bodies of water tend to experience the processes of erosion and sedimentation to one degree or another as they experience a range of hydrologic and sediment inputs which dictate their morphology. Erosion may result in scour of a river bed or banks which can cause loss or damage to property. Sedimentation can cause loss of flood conveyance capacity resulting in more frequent flooding. Changes to water bodies due to erosion and sedimentation range from relatively minor to catastrophic depending on the controlling physical processes. Simons & Associates applies a variety of tools to analyze, evaluate, and predict erosion and sedimentation. Such tools consist of a three-level procedure which includes qualitative geomorphic analysis, quantitative geomorphic and engineering analysis, and computer or physical modeling. This three-level approach has been developed and refined based on decades of experience on a wide variety of conditions world-wide. Analysis of erosion and sedimentation using this approach ensures results that are credible, being based on scientifically supportable procedures which are checked for consistency by comparing the various analysis tools as applied to each particular project.

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HYDRAULICS
Hydraulics as applied to surface water analysis relates the variables of velocity, depth, and water surface elevation to the magnitude of flow or tide. These are key variables since they are directly associated with such issues as flooding and sediment transport. Hydraulic analysis uses data which defines channel geometry (cross-section and slope), resistance to flow, coupled with the magnitude of flow to compute the physical characteristics of the flow defined by the key variables of velocity, depth, and water surface elevation. Simons & Associates has developed and applied a wide variety of hydraulic analysis tools including a range of computer models. These models may be as simple as a normal depth calculation or a steady-state backwater calculation, ranging up to non-uniform, unsteady flow models of single or multiple dimensions. Hydraulic analysis is a key component of the analysis of erosion and sedimentation, sediment transport, and channel dynamics. Simons & Associates has conducted numerous hydraulic analyses using a wide variety of modeling approaches on a wide range of hydraulic conditions from the smallest and steepest mountain streams down through the geomorphic system of larger and flatter rivers to and including estuaries.

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HYDROLOGY
The hydrologic process plays a significant role in hydraulics, sediment transport, erosion and sedimentation, geomorphology, as well as environmental processes. Hydrology involves the relationship between storms and runoff. The hydrologic process is often affected in a variety of ways by such as water resources development, general development, and other activities in watersheds and along waterways. Simons & Associates has collected and analyzed hydrologic data from a wide range of waterways world-wide. In addition, Simons & Associates has developed and applied computer models to analyze hydrologic data. Such models include a variety of watershed rainfall/runoff models as well as flood-frequency and flow-duration analyses. With considerable experience in hydrologic data collection and analysis, Simons & Associates has a good understanding of hydrology coupled with a range of analysis tools to apply in the analysis of specific hydrologic issues.

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ENGINEERING ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES' engineers have acquired extensive experience in dealing with problems related to all aspects of civil engineering related to water resources development which includes hydropower, irrigation systems, water supply systems, mining, navigation, and flood control. This experience has been achieved through the successful completion of hundreds of projects both nationally and internationally. Successful engineering design must incorporate various levels of analysis, depending upon the complexity of the project. The initial phases of design take advantage of experience and knowledge regarding geomorphic processes. The middle phases expand upon this knowledge by utilizing engineering concepts, principles and experience. The final phases refine the design by utilizing mathematical models and/or physical models, as required, to achieve identification of the best and most economical methods of achieving analysis and design objectives. A fundamental truth that SA recognizes and applies in engineering design is that it is essential to understand the system within which the design must function. For example, when dealing with river response it is necessary to identify the supply of sediment, the characteristics of the sediment and the linkage between the sediment and the hydrology to achieve a successful analysis and design. Many water resources systems experience delivery of sediment to a site based upon supply of sediment not sediment transport capacity. In some cases, there can be orders of magnitude difference between supply of sediment to a site versus transport capacity as dictated by theory. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has completed numerous designs of hydraulic structures including dikes, groins, canals, drop structures, levees, erosion protection, bridge hydraulics, as well as modifications to diversion structures for improved hydraulic and sediment performance.

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GROUNDWATER ANALYSIS
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has developed and utilized techniques requiring the use, development, and refinement of sophisticated groundwater models which include analysis of linkages between ponds, reservoirs and the natural drainage system. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has worked extensively with problems of seepage from canals, reservoirs, and sewage lagoons. A recent example of this experience involved conducting a study in California involving seepage, the impacts of impermeable boundaries on seepage, and the linkages between ponds, aquifers and river systems.

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FAILURE ANALYSIS
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has extensive experience with failure analysis through determining and explaining why and how things go wrong in various components of water resources development and in the protection of the watershed and riverine environment. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES expertise comes from in-depth experience and knowledge dealing with all aspects of climatic, hydrologic, hydraulic, sediment transport, and hydraulic structure problems. Its staff investigates all problems utilizing extraordinary depth of analysis. The staff of SA utilizes their expertise along with state-of-the-art engineering measures required to correct deficiencies associated with identified failures of components of systems or of the total system. Specific projects have involved unanticipated river response to floods, levee failures, failures of diversion dams or dams associated with water resources development including hydropower, and the movement, fate and clean-up of contaminated materials associated with the watershed and riverine environment.

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ECOLOGICAL HABITAT EVALUATION
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has conducted a number of analyses related to fisheries issues including habitat, passage, and spawning. This type of analysis generally uses principles developed in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) applying a combination of hydraulic modeling and habitat suitability criteria. The habitat suitability criteria principally includes depth, velocity, and substrate for various species and life stages of fish. In addition, SA has collected data and developed flow/habitat models specifically for threatened and endangered bird species that need riverine areas for roosting, nesting, and foraging. Analyses of wetlands and the linkage between surface water, groundwater, channel dynamics, and wetlands impacts have been conducted by SA.

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FATE AND IMPACT OF CONTAMINANTS
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has conducted numerous analyses of the mobility and concentration of contaminants for both static and dynamic environments. These analyses have included the determination of concentration, half-life, mobility, and fate of contaminants with regard to development and environmental impacts. In addition, mixing models have been applied to determine mixing zone criteria

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INSTREAM WATER TEMPERATURE MODELING
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has conducted thermal modeling on both warm water and cold water stream systems for a variety of applications. These include evaluation of the effect of transporting water from other sources into existing stream systems. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has incorporated water temperature studies as part of over-all IFIM studies. These studies have included the effects of mixing waters of different temperatures with respect to both game and nongame species in both cold and warm water systems. Such studies consider water temperature variations as affected by imported water, ambient air temperature, and distance downstream of the point source. Current versions of the SNTEMP software from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the capability to analyze all aspects of instream water temperature variation are maintained in-house.

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS
To facilitate SA engineers' expertise in answering complex water resources problems, a number of models applicable to watersheds, rivers, reservoirs, hydropower development, irrigation, mining, and environmental evaluation and remediation have been developed. These are 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional models which have been applied to a wide range of water resources and environmental analysis-related projects. In addition, SA has developed and utilized state-of-the-art water-sediment routing models and pollutant transport models for analysis of watersheds, rivers (including scour problems), aggradation, degradation, bridge hydraulics, channel stability analysis, and the response *of watersheds and river systems to all types of development. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has an extensive engineering library of software which is continuously reviewed and updated in order to maintain leadership in this field.

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EXPERT SYSTEMS
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES is experienced with the use of Artificial Intelligence concepts. Clients have discovered that use of Expert Systems specifically designed to comply with their individual requirements is an efficient way to utilize available data incorporated into analysis methodologies and decision making rules to select appropriate operation strategies to meet a range of objectives.

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PHYSICAL MODELING
Because of the complexity of physical systems, it is often expedient to build scale models and utilize them to test geomorphic and engineering design concepts. The utilization of such models greatly enhances the understanding of the physical system and can be an extremely useful component of analysis and design, for refining designs, and for communicating with the client. Large physical model facilities are available locally for use by SA as are other laboratory facilities.

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TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has actively participated in technology transfer for numerous years. This technology transfer has been accomplished through teaching short courses, preparation of training and design manuals, and publication and presentation of technical papers. Additionally, SA has published several reference books and textbooks. A reference book co-authored by SA titled Highways in the River Environment was commissioned by the Federal Highway Administration to be utilized to instruct state hydraulic engineers as well as other individuals interested in gaining expertise in this area. SIMONS & ASSOCIATES provides this instruction in approximately four states per year.

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VIDEO DEVELOPMENT
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES has developed and participated in numerous films and videos for presentation which have identified and supported the application of concepts related to problem analysis and decision making, and have assisted in the determination of sensitivity to imposed conditions. The development of state-of-the-art videos using physical processes combined with computer simulation models of technical issues to visually depict the problem at hand has been successfully used in public meetings, hearings, depositions, and litigation.

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HEARING AND LITIGATION SUPPORT
SIMONS & ASSOCIATES prides itself in serving to solve complex problems. This is accomplished by providing services in the areas of public hearings and participation within the negotiation processes. However, if necessary, it also has the experience to represent clients by preparing reports, critical literature and data reviews, and by providing expert testimony.

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